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TEX(1)                                                     TEX(1)

NAME
tex, virtex - text formatting and typesetting

SYNOPSIS
tex [ first line ]

virtex [ first line ]

DESCRIPTION
TeX  formats  the interspersed text and commands contained
in the named files and outputs  a  typesetter  independent
file  (called DVI, which is short for DeVice Independent).
TeX capabilities and language are described  in  The  TeX-
book.

TeX  is  normally  used  with  a large body of precompiled
macros, and there are several specific formatting systems,
such  as LaTeX, which require the support of several macro
files.  The basic programs as compiled are  called  initex
and  virtex, and are distinguished by the fact that initex
can be used to precompile macros into a .fmt  file,  which
is  used by virtex.  On the other hand, virtex starts more
quickly and can read a precompiled .fmt file, but it  can-
not create one.  It is the version of TeX which is usually
invoked in production, as opposed to installation.

Any arguments given on the command line to  the  TeX  pro-
grams are passed to them as the first input line.  (But it
is often easier to type extended arguments  as  the  first
input  line, since Unix shells tend to gobble up or misin-
terpret TeX's favorite symbols, like  backslashes,  unless
you  quote them.)  As described in The TeXbook, that first
line should begin with a filename or  a  \controlsequence.
The normal usage is to say
tex paper
to start processing paper.tex.  The name paper will be the
``jobname'', and is used in forming output filenames.   If
TeX  doesn't get a filename in the first line, the jobname
is texput.  The default extension, .tex, can be overridden
by specifying an extension explicitly.

If  there  is  no  paper.tex in the current directory, TeX
will look through a search path of directories to  try  to
find it.  If paper is the ``jobname'', a log of error mes-
sages, with rather more detail than  normally  appears  on
the  screen, will appear in paper.log, and the output file
will  be  in  paper.dvi.   The  system  library  directory
/usr/lib/texmf/texmf/tex  contains the basic macro package
plain.tex, described in The TeXbook, as  well  as  several
others.   Except  when .fmt files are being prepared it is
unnecessary to \input plain, since almost all instances of
the control sequences discussed in The TeXbook  are  known
when  you invoke tex.  For a discussion of .fmt files, see

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TEX(1)                                                     TEX(1)

below.

The e response to TeX's error  prompt  causes  the  system
default editor to start up at the current line of the cur-
rent file.  The environment variable TEXEDIT can  be  used
to  change  the editor used.  It can contain a string with
"%s" indicating where the filename goes and "%d"  indicat-
ing  where  the  decimal  line  number (if any) goes.  For
example, a TEXEDIT string for vi can be set with  the  csh
command
setenv TEXEDIT "/usr/ucb/vi +%d %s"
A  convenient  file in the library is null.tex, containing
nothing.  When TeX can't find a file it thinks you want to
input,  it keeps asking you for another filename; respond-
ing `null' gets you out of the loop if you don't  want  to
input  anything.   You  can  also  type your EOF character
(usually control-D).

The initex and virtex programs can be used to create fast-
initex program is used to create a format (.fmt) file that
processing the fonts and definitions desired, a \dump com-
mand will create the format file.  The format file is used
by virtex.  It needs to be given a format filename as  the
first thing it reads.  A format filename is preceded by an
&, which needs to be escaped with \, or quoted, to prevent
misinterpretation  by  the Unix shell if given on the com-
mand line.

Fortunately, it is no longer necessary  to  make  explicit
references  to  the  format  file.  The present version of
TeX, when compiled from this distribution,  looks  at  its
own  command  line  to  determine  what name it was called
under.  It then uses  that  name,  with  the  .fmt  suffix
appended, to search for the appropriate format file.  Dur-
ing installation, one format file with the  name  tex.fmt,
with  only  the plain.tex macros defined, should have been
created.  This will be your format file  when  you  invoke
virtex  with  the  name  tex.   You can also create a file
mytex.fmt using initex, so that this will be  loaded  when
you  invoke virtex with the name mytex.  To make the whole
thing work, it is necessary to  link  virtex  to  all  the
names  of format files that you have prepared.  Hard links
will do for  system-wide  equivalences  and  Unix  systems
example:  virtex  can be hard linked to tex in the general
system directory for executable programs, but an  individ-
ual version of TeX will more likely be linked to a private
ln     -s      /usr/lib/texmf/bin/i586-linux/virtex
\$HOME/bin/mytex

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TEX(1)                                                     TEX(1)

Another approach is to set up an alias using, for example,
csh(1):
alias mytex virtex \&myfmt
Besides being more cumbersome, however, this  approach  is
not  available  to  systems  which  do not accept aliases.
Finally, there is a program known as undump(1) which takes
the  headers from an a.out file (e.g., virtex) and applies
them to a core image which has been  dumped  by  the  Unix
quit  signal.  This is very system-dependent, and produces
extremely large files when used with a  large-memory  ver-
sion  of  TeX.   This  can  produce executables which load
faster, but the executables also consume more disk  space.

When  looking  for  a  font f, TeX (and its companion pro-
grams) first look for a file starting with f in the  vari-
ous  font  directories (see the next section).  If no such
file is found, it then looks for a  file  texfonts.map  in
each of the font directories in turn.  Each non-blank non-
comment line of texfonts.map specifies mappings  from  one
the end of the line.)  The target name is the  first  word
(words  are  separated  by  spaces or tabs) and the source
name is the second.  (Subsequent  words  are  ignored,  so
that  information intended for other programs can be given
there.)  Thus, going back to f for a moment, if TeX  reads
a  texfonts.map  entry  that  looks  like g f it will then
search for a font file starting with g.

ENVIRONMENT
See the Kpathsearch library documentation (the `Path spec-
ifications'  node) for precise details of how the environ-
ment variables are used.

One caveat: In most TeX formats, you cannot  use  ~  in  a
filename  you give directly to TeX, because ~ is an active
character, and hence is expanded, not taken as part of the
filename.   Other  programs, such as Metafont, do not have
this problem.

All the programs in the web2c  distribution  (as  well  as
some others) use this same search method.

Normally,  TeX puts its output files in the current direc-
tory.  If any output file cannot be opened there, it tries
to  open  it in the directory specified in the environment
variable TEXMFOUTPUT.  There is no default value for  that
variable.   For example, if you say tex paper and the cur-
rent directory is not writable,  if  TEXMFOUTPUT  has  the
value  /tmp,  TeX  attempts  to create /tmp/paper.log (and
/tmp/paper.dvi, if any output is produced.)

TEXINPUTS       Search path for \input and \openin  files.
that user files are  found  before  system

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TEX(1)                                                     TEX(1)

files.                            Default:
.:!!/usr/lib/texmf/texmf/tex//

TEXFONTS        Search path for font metric (.tfm)  files.
Default:
!!/usr/lib/texmf/texmf/fonts/tfm//:/var/tmp/tex-
fonts/tfm//:.

TEXFORMATS      Search  path  for  format files.  Default:
.:!!/usr/lib/texmf/texmf/web2c

TEXPOOL         search path for initex  internal  strings.
Default: .:!!/usr/lib/texmf/texmf/web2c

TEXEDIT         Command  template for switching to editor.
Default: vi +%d %s

MAKETEXTEX      Arguments to pass to the MakeTeXTeX script
before  the  filename  to  create. None by
default. (If set,  also  implies  invoking
MakeTeXTeX.)

USE_MAKETEXTEX  If  set,  a  program MakeTeXTeX is invoked
when TeX cannot find an input file (before
it  complains  about ``can't find file'').
If neither MAKETEXTEX  nor  USE_MAKETEXTEX
are  set, whether MakeTeXTeX is invoked is
the choice of installer.

MAKETEXTFM      Analogous.

USE_MAKETEXTFM  Analogous.

FILES
/usr/lib/texmf/texmf/web2c/tex.pool
Encoded text of TeX's messages.

/usr/lib/texmf/texmf/fonts/texfonts.map
Filename mapping definitions.

/usr/lib/texmf/texmf/fonts//*.tfm
Metric files for TeX's fonts.

/usr/lib/texmf/texmf/fonts//*.nnn{gf,pk}
Character   bitmaps   for    various
devices.   These  files are not used
by TeX.

/usr/lib/texmf/texmf/web2c/*.fmt
Predigest TeX format (.fmt) files.

/usr/lib/texmf/texmf/tex/plain/base/plain.tex
The basic macro package described in
the TeXbook.

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TEX(1)                                                     TEX(1)

mf(1), undump(1),
Donald  E.  Knuth, The TeXbook, Addison-Wesley, 1986, ISBN
0-201-13447-0.
Leslie Lamport, LaTeX -  A  Document  Preparation  System,
Michael  Spivak, The Joy of TeX, 2nd edition, Addison-Wes-
ley, 1990, ISBN 0-8218-2997-1.
TUGboat (the journal of the TeX Users Group).

TRIVIA
TeX, pronounced properly, rhymes with  ``blecchhh.''   The
proper  spelling  in  typewriter-like fonts is ``TeX'' and
not ``TEX'' or ``tex.''

AUTHORS
TeX was designed by Donald E. Knuth,  who  implemented  it
using  his  Web system for Pascal programs.  It was ported
to Unix at Stanford by Howard Trickey, and at  Cornell  by
Pavel  Curtis.   The version now offered with the Unix TeX
distribution is that generated by  the  Web  to  C  system
(web2c),  originally written by Tomas Rokicki and Tim Mor-
gan.

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